A property survey (otherwise known as a land survey) is a formal inspection of the boundaries of your property. The survey results are written in a formal legal document and presented visually as a map of the property's boundaries and attached structures.
A survey shows how large the property is and maps out where the boundaries are. It also maps out any buildings or other structures on the property. There are GPS coordinates for all the corners and measurements for the lengths in between. The survey will also show any roads that touch the property line.
However, the survey only represents the land at a specific point in time. Any reliance on a survey plan must be done cautiously. A site may change with new fences, building additions, or age.
The purpose of a land survey is to understand the exact geographic boundaries of the property. You receive a legal document that protects your ownership rights if there is ever doubt about who owns what portion of the land.
This prevents neighbours from fighting over land as you can prove the boundaries of your property. The survey will communicate the border between two plots of land and where the fence should lie.
After hiring a land surveyor, they will complete three steps to verify what lies on your property. The land surveyor will:
Step one: Review ownership history
Property surveys begin with an examination of legal descriptions for the land being examined, as well as its history. Your land surveyor will review local databases to analyze the history of the deed and title. The title search ensures there are no discrepancies about who owns the land.
A property survey also covers rights-of-way, easements, and other details. These are items that describe how to use common yards or driveways, as well as whether your neighbour has the right of way to the street or alleyway between your homes. A title search would also disclose any restrictive covenants attached to the title.
Step two: Surveying fieldwork
Next, the land surveyor will come out and measure where each boundary lies and all of the buildings or other structures on that property. Their goal is to determine everything that belongs to your property. The survey will mark any fences, roads, lakes or rivers that intersect the property line and highlight where they end within the property.
Land Surveyors must follow specific requirements for accuracy. All measurements are taken using exact equipment, such as laser levels and tapes; total station; GPS units; digital angular measuring instruments (DAMI); or a combination thereof.
Step three: Create an ownership map
After conducting research, the land surveyor will provide a map that shows the legal boundaries of the property. It will outline all the measurements made during fieldwork; including all corners, along with the lengths and bearing between them. The finished product will also include a description of the land, the street address, buildings, and neighbouring properties' locations.
Buying a home
If you're purchasing property in Canada, having the plot surveyed before closing the deal is wise. This will allow you to understand which plot you are buying and prevent any mistakes. It's also wise to have an updated survey done if there has been any subdivision of property since the last time a survey was done (i.e., legal description changed).
Financing a property
Your Canadian mortgage lender may require a property survey to protect their investment. They want to ensure that the property and structures they are financing are represented in the paperwork submitted with the transaction. They also want to know that if the mortgage goes into default, they will not encounter title or boundary issues in re-selling the property.
Suppose you have an existing home and want to add on or build. In that case, it is essential to have your land surveyed professionally to avoid problems with construction. A survey will prevent you from accidentally building onto your neighbour's property. Additionally, you will understand the zoning restrictions of your plot.
Surveyor's Real Property Report (SRPR)
An SRPR shows the position of buildings or structures concerning the property's boundaries. This standard assessment also displays other physical features and registered encumbrances, such as easements located on or adjacent to the property.
A site plan is a drawing, or set of drawings, depicting the current layout of completed property improvements such as new buildings, driveways, parking lots, pedestrian walkways, fences, and town services. The plan must also detail any proposed improvements. Site plan approval typically needs to be approved before receiving a building permit for commercial, institutional, industrial and residential development.
A topographic survey shows the elevations, contours on and below the property. The contour lines depict the slope of the property. Closer contour lines demonstrate a steeper slope. In contrast, further contour lines indicate a flatter slope. If boundary information is required, a professional land surveyor must be engaged to prepare the topographic plan.
The cost of a land survey can range from $1,500 to over $6,000 for larger properties in Canada. However, the cost of the survey depends on the size of the property and the type of survey being completed. For example, a topographical survey may be more expensive because it requires extra stake-out points to ensure accuracy. A land surveyor should be able to provide you with an estimate based on your individual needs.
Across Canada, land surveyors are overseen by The Canadian Board of Examiners for Professional Surveyors (CBEPS). However, each province has their associations, as demonstrated in the next section. When hiring a property surveyor, make sure to follow these five steps:
Step one: Find local surveyors
There are two methods to initially finding experienced property surveyors in your area:
Step two: Qualify surveyors
After receiving recommendations, review the licenses of any land surveyors you find. In Canada, land surveyors are typically licenced by provincial boards that mandate a code of conduct. In particular, screen out any land surveyors that aren't licensed or have significant complaints.
Step three: Interview land surveyors
After narrowing it down to qualified land surveyors, interview a few to determine their experience with projects like yours. As mentioned above, there are various types of surveys, so a particular land surveyor may not have expertise with what you need.
Ask for references that you can talk to. Ask the land surveyor what they think the project will require, how long it will take, how much they expect it to cost, and if anything could make the price go up.
Step four: Understand costs
Clarify the billing structure of the land surveyors. Understand how they charge for travel. This is especially important if you are located far from the land surveyor's office.
Additionally, ask about hourly costs for surveys that take longer due to weather. Spring and summer may conceal survey marks with vegetation, while winter snows can cover landmarks entirely.
Step five: Finalize
Choose a land surveyor who provides the most appropriate combination of experience, reputation, and service. While the cost of a survey is essential, it's generally minor compared to your total real estate project. Getting it done correctly might save money in the long run.
The Association of Ontario Land Surveyors (AOLS) has high standards for registration. Applicants must receive a bachelor's degree from an approved program in addition to a minimum one-year apprenticeship with exams.
You can find an AOLS licensed surveyor on their website. This ensures that you get someone who has undergone rigorous education and has passed all exams.
The Ordre des arpenteurs-géomètres du Québec (OAGQ) is the governing body for land surveyors in Quebec. Applicants must complete three steps to become licensed practitioners:
The OAGQ makes it easy to find certified land surveyors on their website.
The Association of British Columbia Land Surveyors (ABCLS) oversees the licensing in the province. To become an accredited member, applicants must complete field project reports, an examination, and a professional assessment interview.
Although the ABCLS does not provide recommendations, you can use their public register to analyze status, contact information, and areas of practice about their members.
The Alberta Land Surveyors Association (ALSA) manages the licensing process in the province. The most common route to becoming an Alberta land surveyor begins with having your academic credentials evaluated. Candidates must then obtain field experience and pass a series of professional exams.
ALSA provides a land surveyor search to verify that your chosen land surveyor is licensed.
How often do I need a property survey?
When you're buying a home, get a land surveyor to conduct an up-to-date assessment of the property. Don't trust an old property survey given by the owner since it may not reflect recent modifications to the property that might impact its usage and value. Furthermore, if the previous survey is more than six months old, most lenders will refuse
How to get a copy of my property survey?
A copy of an older survey may be obtained from the following places:
How much does it cost to survey property lines?
The exact cost will vary greatly depending on your property. A residential property survey costs approximately $1,500 to over $6,000 for larger properties in Canada.
Why would someone survey my property?
Someone else would survey your property because they are considering buying it. They want to be sure that what you say is true about your property matches what their survey reveals.
How long does a property survey take?
On average, a property survey can take 1-3 weeks. While it can be typical for a property survey to be completed within a week, some projects may take up to three weeks or longer, depending on the size and complexity of the survey.